Difference between Li-ion batteries and Lead Acid batteries?

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and lead-acid batteries are two types of rechargeable batteries commonly used in various applications. They differ significantly in terms of their chemistry, performance, and applications.

Here are some key differences between them:​

Lithium-ion Batteries: These batteries use lithium ions as the charge carriers. They typically contain a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4), or lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathode, a graphite anode, and an electrolyte solution.​

Lead-Acid Batteries: Lead-acid batteries use lead dioxide as the positive electrode, metallic lead as the negative electrode, and sulfuric acid as the electrolyte.​

Energy Density:
Li-ion batteries have a higher energy density compared to lead-acid batteries, meaning they can store more energy in a given volume or weight.​

Weight and Size:
Li-ion batteries are typically lighter and more compact than lead-acid batteries with similar capacity.​

Cycle Life and maintenance:​
Li-ion batteries generally have a longer cycle life, meaning they can be charged and discharged more times before their performance degrades significantly.​ Li-ion batteries require minimal maintenance compared to lead-acid batteries.​

Li-ion batteries have different safety considerations compared to lead-acid batteries. While both types can pose safety risks if mishandled or damaged, Li-ion batteries are more sensitive to overcharging, over-discharging, and physical damage, which can lead to thermal runaway and fire hazards. “thermal runaway” can be caused by factors such as overcharging, puncture, exposure to high temperatures, or manufacturing defects.​

Temperature Sensitivity:
Li-ion batteries are more sensitive to temperature extremes compared to lead-acid batteries. Extreme temperatures, whether too high or too low, can affect the performance and lifespan of Li-ion batteries, whereas lead-acid batteries are more tolerant to a wider range of temperatures.​ ​

Lead-acid batteries are typically less expensive upfront compared to lithium-ion batteries.